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Polyaniline-Oxyde de Titane : un composite pour la récolte et le stockage d’énergie

Abstract : This thesis is divided in three parts. The first one deals with the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI), a hole conducting polymer, used in many applications. By varying the quantities of the monomer and the oxidant while fixing the molar ratio at 1:1.25, and by adding magnesium oxide, novel echinoid-like and PANI needles were formed. The formation mechanism of the 1D structures is explained using the multi-layer theory. The second section is devoted for the fabrication of low cost single-layered photovoltaic devices based on the working principle of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In 1991, Grätzel reintroduced the photo-electrochemical effect by developing the first DSSC, one of the third generation solar cells, formed of a TiO2 film (photoanode) sensitized using a dye and an electrolyte regenerating the excited dye. Despite their low cost, DSSCs face many problems such as the high cost of the dye, leaking of the electrolyte, sublimation of the I-/I3- through I2, etc. To solve these problems a single layer photovoltaic device has been developed. Composites formed of PANI, and TiO2 are the basis of the new generation photovoltaics. The in-situ polymerization of aniline inside a titania solution results in a strong interaction between PANI and TiO2 particles where a core (TiO2)/shell (PANI) structure exists inside the composite. In the single-layered photovoltaic device based on PANI-TiO2 composite, PANI is considered as sensitizer at the photoanode and as polyelectrolyte deeper inside the composite layer. In addition, textiles fabricated using such composites generated a voltage of 0.6 V and a current of 1 A/m2 when ethanol is injected in the solar cell. A new architecture has been developed to enhance the performance of the device and at the same time to store the converted energy for later use. The final part is devoted to the fabrication of DSSCs based on natural dyes. Anthocyanin; a halochromic natural dye responsible for the red color in plants, extracted from red cabbage was used to sensitize TiO2 films. This property results in the fabrication of DSSCs with different colors and photovoltaic behavior. At a pH equal to 0, a Voc and Jsc of 520 mV and 185 μA/cm2 were respectively recorded proving the possibility of using red cabbages as a very low cost dye source for DSSCs.
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Michael Ibrahim. Polyaniline-Oxyde de Titane : un composite pour la récolte et le stockage d’énergie. Autre. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LYO10330⟩. ⟨tel-00740808⟩

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