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0-dimensional modeling of the combustion of alternative fuels in spark ignition engines

Abstract : A promising way to reduce green house gases emissions of spark ignition (SI) engines is to burn alternative fuels like bio-mass-derived products, hydrogen or compressed natural gas. However, their use strongly impacts combustion processes in terms of burning velocity and emissions. Specific engine architectures as well as dedicated control strategies should then be optimized to take advantage of these fuels. Such developments are today increasingly performed using complete engine simulators running in times close to the real time and thus requiring very CPU efficient models. For this purpose, 0-dimensional models are commonly used to describe combustion processes in the cylinders. These models are expected to reproduce the engine response for all possible fuels, which is not an obvious task regarding the mentioned CPU constraints. Works performed in this thesis aimed at developing the 0-dimensional combustion model CFM1D (Coherent Flame Model) to improve the prediction of heat release, pollutants emissions and auto-ignition phenomena in SI engines when fuel composition variations are considered. The CFM formalism distinguishes two zones: the fresh and the burnt gases, which are separated by a flame front and are both described by their temperature, mass and composition. In this formalism, the rate of consumption of species is directly linked to the combustion and post-oxidation processes highly dependent on chemistry and turbulence mechanisms. In the original version of CFM1D, these mechanisms are represented by simple approaches which can suffer from a lack of predictivity. The prediction of pollutant formation can therefore be limited by the simple or reduced chemistries used to describe kinetics in the chamber. These latter are indeed defined in very restrictive validity domains in terms of temperature, pressure and composition. In the same way, the flame velocity, wrinkling or potential auto-ignition delays stepping in the heat release computation are defined by phenomenological correlations initially developed under a limited number of validation points. All these limitations can finally lead to a wrong behavior of the combustion model to thermodynamic and compositions variations and therefore required a number of improvements presented in this manuscript. The originality of the model derives from the fact it is based on the integration of complex chemistry in CFM1D using methods inspired from recent 3D (Computational Fluid Dynamics) CFD works.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, October 10, 2012 - 3:58:40 PM
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Sabre Bougrine. 0-dimensional modeling of the combustion of alternative fuels in spark ignition engines. Other. Ecole Centrale Paris, 2012. English. ⟨NNT : 2012ECAP0031⟩. ⟨tel-00740654⟩

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