Bâtiments et facteur 4, de l'émergence d'un objectif global à son application au niveau local. : Analyse des problématiques de rénovation dans le secteur résidentiel à caractère social.

Abstract : Doubling Wealth - Halving Resource Use: from the original goals of efficiency production methods, the concept of "factor 4" has gradually changed in the early twenty-first century to focus on the division by 4 of greenhouse gas emissions. Today, Factor 4 depending on the scale refers to two different but interrelated concepts: climate factor 4 (national scale) and the energy factor 4 (at the micro-economic scale). Energy factor 4, transposition of climate issues (GHG) to the aspects of energy management has largely been developed in one sector of economy: the building sector. This sector, through its pool of savings has demonstrated widespread enthusiasm and has realized the implementation of regulations, labels and scenarios to guide and suggest directions towards the factor 4. Nevertheless, the practical implementation of theoretical objectives is hampered by the complexity of this sector. This complexity is due to the diversity of buildings, but also and above all, to the variety of actors who need to be mobilized. The aim of this research is to study the complex system represented by the construction industry and its actors, faced with the objective of factor 4. This thesis proposes to identify bottlenecks and success factors in operations and construction renovation as so ask the question: what are the barriers and levers encountered by actors trying to achieve the factor 4 in the building sector? To do this, we chose to study in detail the case of the Loire department and then consider whether lessons learned on this department could be applied to all France. Twenty interviews coupled with a questionnaire completed by over 200 professional actors in the building sector have been done. These qualitative and quantitative surveys have identified and classified 24 types of barriers relating to financial, technical, regulatory and behavioural issues as well as key levers that can help to overcome them. Through analysis of results, behavioural and financial issues appear to be paramount for the interviewed actors. Still, the variety of barriers and their interrelationship requires one conclusion: the current system, constrained by the objective of factor 4 requires not an adaptation or an evolution but a redesign of modes of thinking and acting. This redesign, advocating the concepts of sufficiency and efficiency needs to be ordered: the sufficiency of design is a preliminary step to energy efficiency, itself a precursor to the sufficiency of use. Action research conducted on three renovation projects in the territory of Saint-Etienne and combining more than one hundred interviews with tenants of social housing company confirms this arrangement. Inhabitants, as key actors of a project, stipulate that an increase in their comfort level combined to an improvement of housing performance, as a condition to their sufficiency. This sufficiency tested through thermal dynamic simulations (temperature, occupancy, closing the shutters) could allow a halving of building consumption.
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Jonathan Villot. Bâtiments et facteur 4, de l'émergence d'un objectif global à son application au niveau local. : Analyse des problématiques de rénovation dans le secteur résidentiel à caractère social.. Autre. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012EMSE0649⟩. ⟨tel-00739707⟩

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