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L'hypothalamus latéral contiendrait le générateur principal du sommeil paradoxal : arguments neuroanatomiques et pharmacologiques chez le rat

Abstract : A growing number of studies investigate the neurological mechanisms responsible for paradoxical sleep (PS) genesis and homeostasis. The work presented in this thesis aims to better characterize the neuronal populations implicated in PS regulation and their interrelations. To this purpose, we combined complementary techniques such as functional neuroanatomy, polysomnography and pharmacological approaches on freely moving animals. We thus demonstrated for the first time the glutamatergic nature of SLD neurons which are known to be responsible for muscle atonia and cortical activation characterizing PS. Moreover it is well established that SLD neurons are inhibited by GABAergic cells located inside the ventrolateral part of the periaqueductal gray (VLPAG). Consequently, the control of theses neurons, a crucial step for PS genesis is still a matter of debate. The results we obtained strongly suggest that the lateral hypothalamus (LH) would be responsible for this control and thus for PS. Indeed, LH is the main activated afferent to VLPAG during PS-hypersomnia and its inhibition by muscimol application totally suppresses PS and activates VLPAG GABAergic cells projecting to SLD. We also analyzed the implication of the dorsal part of the paragigantocellular reticular nucleus in PS regulation. Even if it was known that DPGi is responsible for locus coeruleus (LC) inactivation during PS, we brought new evidences showing that DPGi would actually inhibits all noradrenergic and adrenergic cells and not only LC suggesting that DPGi could be of importance for PS genesis. All our data allow us to better understand the PS neuronal network and suggest that, contrary to the classical view that PS is generated by the pons, LH would be the primary PS generator.
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Olivier Clément. L'hypothalamus latéral contiendrait le générateur principal du sommeil paradoxal : arguments neuroanatomiques et pharmacologiques chez le rat. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LYO10232⟩. ⟨tel-00739636⟩

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