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Quelques contributions à l'analyse mathématique et numérique d'équations cinétiques collisionnelles

Abstract : This dissertation is dedicated to the mathematical and numerical study of a class of collisional kinetic equations, such as the Boltzmann equation of perfect gases. We took a particular interest in the granular media (or gases) equation, which has been first introduced in the physical literature to describe the nonnequilibrium behavior of materials composed of a large number of grains (the particles) of macroscopic size, interacting through energy dissipative collisions. These models have a very rich mathematical structure. This dissertation is divided in three independent part, all related to the theory of collisional kinetic equation, with a strong emphasis on granular media. The first part concerns the mathematical study of the asymptotic behavior of space homogeneous Boltzmann-like kinetic equations. We prove some blow up results, as well as convergence towards self-similarity, with explicit rates for two different models. One of the key tools of our proofs is the use of a new scaling method, where the scaling function depends on the solution itself. We especially prove that for a particular model of granular gases (also know as anomalous), finite time blow up occurs. The second part is dedicated to the development and study of spectral methods for the resolution of multi-scale problems, coming from the theory of collisional kinetic equations. Some rescaling methods take a very important place in this part, allowing to observe numerically some nontrivial phenomena such as the clustering in space which occurs in the time evolution of a space inhomogeneous granular gas, or to investigate numerically the trend to equilibrium for this equation. The whole third (and last) part is dedicated to the spectral study of the granular gases operator with a thermal bath, linearized near a space homogeneous self-similar profile. The goal of this work is to prove some stability results for the complete space inhomogeneous equation, and to investigate the hydrodynamic limit of the model. This work is based and extend the famous result of R. Ellis and M. Pinsky on the spectrum of the linearized Boltzmann equation, intended to establish rigorously the hydrodynamic limit of this equation towards the linearized Euler and Navier-Stokes equations
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Thomas Rey. Quelques contributions à l'analyse mathématique et numérique d'équations cinétiques collisionnelles. Théorie spectrale [math.SP]. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LYO10138⟩. ⟨tel-00738709v2⟩

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