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Etude de rôle du récepteur Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) dans le contrôle de l’utilisation du glucose

Abstract : Glucose metabolism dysreglation leads to the developpment of hyperglaecemia and is classically associated with metabolic diseases such as Type II diabetes or obesity. The liver is a key organ in the control of glucose homeostasis. Indeed, at a post-prandial state (after a meal), it utilizes glucose to produce energy by the glycolysis pathway, but mostly stores the glucose excess as glycogen by the glycogenesis pathway and the energie excess as fatty acids by the lipogenesis pathway. These pathways are controlled by insulin and glucagon hormones which, in response ton nutritional changes, regulate respectively the utilization (glycolysis) and the production (gluconeogenesis) of glucose by inducing the expression of enzymes involved in these pathways. More recently, it has been shown that glycolyisis and lipogenesis are also regulated by glucose who activates the transcription factor ChREBP (Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein) and therefore induces the expression of glycolytic genes, such as LPK (Liver Pyruvate Kinase) and lipogenic genes, such as FAS (Fatty Acid Synthase) and ACC1 (Acetyl-CoenzymeA Carboxylase 1). Nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor, a transcription factor activated by ligands, besides its role in the regulation of bile acids and lipids, also controls the glucose metabolism in liver. Thus, FXR inhibit the expression of genes involved in glycolysis and lipogenesis, probably by interfering with the transcription factor ChREBP, as it has been suggested by a recent study The objectifs of my thesis were to characterize two human hepatocyte cell lines IHH ( (Immortalized Human Hepatocytes) and HepaRG from a metabolic point of view and to study the molecular mecanisms involved in the interference of FXR with the activity of ChREBP in these two cell lines.
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 18, 2012 - 5:46:03 PM
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Carolina Huaman Samanez. Etude de rôle du récepteur Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) dans le contrôle de l’utilisation du glucose. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LIL2S001⟩. ⟨tel-00738371⟩

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