Out of equilibrium quantum dynamics and disordered systems in bosonic ultracold atoms

Abstract : The fast progress of cold atoms experiments in the last decade has allowed to explore new aspects of strongly correlated systems. This thesis deals with two such general themes: the out of equilibrium dynamics of closed quantum systems, and the impact of disorder on strongly correlated bosons at zero temperature. Among the different questions about out of equilibrium dynamics, the phenomenon of dynamical transition is still lacking a complete understanding. The transition is typically signalled, in mean-field, by a singular behaviour of observables as a function of the parameters of the quench. In this thesis, a mean field method is developed to give evidence of a strong link between the quantum phase transition at zero temperature and the dynamical transition. We then study using field theory techniques a relativistic O($N$) model, and show that the dynamical transition bears similarities with a critical phenomenon. In this context, the dynamical transition also appears to be formally related to the dynamics of symmetry breaking. The second part of this thesis is about the disordered Bose-Hubbard model and the nature of its phase transitions. We use and extend the cavity mean field method, introduced by Ioffe and Mezard to obtain analytical results from the quantum cavity method and the replica trick. We find that the conventional transition, with power law scaling, is changed into an activated scaling in some regions of the phase diagram. Furthermore, the critical exponents are continuously varying along the conventional transition. These intriguing properties call for further investigations using different methods.
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Bruno Sciolla. Out of equilibrium quantum dynamics and disordered systems in bosonic ultracold atoms. Other [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. English. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112172⟩. ⟨tel-00734641⟩

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