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Prévention de l’insuffisance rénale aiguë ischémique chez le patient ventilé

Abstract : Critically ill patients needing mechanical ventilation are particularly exposed to ischemic renal injury leading for acute kidney injury (AKI) occurrence is associated and poor outcome. The aim of this work was to optimize AKI prevention. We evaluated protective measures for renal oxygen delivery on one hand and the performance of usual tools for the detection and characterization of renal injury on the other hand.The main measure in preventing AKI is the correction and the preservation of blood volume; fluid resuscitation is, however, associated with an increased risk of pulmonary oedema. Our results show that renal outcome depends on the type of fluid used with an increased risk of AKI using hydroxyethylstarches and/or hyper-oncotic colloids while pulmonary function is not influenced by the type of fluids used but depends on the volume infused. Pulmonary worsening seems to occure for a lower volume of colloids than crystalloids, probably because of a higher efficiency to increase intravascular volume.In addition to the restoration of renal perfusion, arterial oxygenation is a potential determinant of renal oxygenation. Because the use of a low FiO2 level is recommended to avoid oxygen related pulmonary lesions, we assessed the renal response to a moderate hypoxemia, usually applied in patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Two hours of mechanical ventilation with a SaO2 between 88% and 92% induces renal diuretic and vascular response identified by Doppler. This response is independent from ventilator and hemodynamic changes. Renal response is rapidly reversible with the correction of hypoxemia. In addition to the ability in detecting changes of intra-renal vascular resistances, we found that Doppler resistive index is helpful in predicting the persistence of AKI, better than most of the usual urinary indices.Our works allow a better approach of the intricate mechanisms in preventing renal and pulmonary functions. Fluid resuscitation can be optimized preferring hypo-oncotic fluids for reducing AKI incidence without apparent negative impact on pulmonary function. Renal response to a moderate hypoxemia suggests that arterial oxygen preservation might be essential for renal function preservation. Renal Doppler is a promising tool for the selection and the evaluation of AKI preventive measures.
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Submitted on : Friday, September 21, 2012 - 2:57:17 PM
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Frédérique Schortgen. Prévention de l’insuffisance rénale aiguë ischémique chez le patient ventilé. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Est, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PEST0102⟩. ⟨tel-00734347⟩

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