Imagerie nanométrique ultra-rapide par diffraction cohérente de rayonnement extrême-UV produit par génération d'harmoniques d'ordre élevé

Abstract : This manuscript presents diffraction imaging experiments performed using a source of coherent radiation based on high order harmonics generation of a Ti:Sa laser. They demonstrate that this laboratory size XUV source produces a number of photons per pulse sufficient to record the diffraction pattern of test objects in « single shot ». The signal thus recorded allows obtaining an image of the object with a resolution of around 100 nanometers. Two schemes are used to reconstruct the object: the first one uses an iterative algorithm to retrieve the phase lost during the detection of the diffraction pattern; the second uses a configuration of Fourier transform holography. The work presented here is separated in two parts. The first one concerns the optimization of the harmonic source, including an experimental study of a spatial filtering device for laser beams by propagation in a hollow core fiber. The second part deals with the diffraction imaging experiments. In particular, I present a demonstration of the holographic scheme HERALDO, which is an extension of the Fourier transform holography with polygonal references. The use of these « extended » references allows the optimization of the holographic recording while maintaining a direct and non-ambiguous reconstruction of the object. An analysis of signal-to-noise ratio and a comparison of hologram reconstructions for different types of references are performed.
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David Gauthier. Imagerie nanométrique ultra-rapide par diffraction cohérente de rayonnement extrême-UV produit par génération d'harmoniques d'ordre élevé. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112019⟩. ⟨tel-00734344⟩

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