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Rôle du Monoxyde d'Azote (NO) et des NO synthases dans la physiopathologie de la BPCO et de ses complications cardiovasculaires

Abstract : The mechanisms that lead to COPD and cause its cardiovascular complications are partially known. NO is produced at high levels by NO-synthases in the human lung with emphysema, but its role in this disease is not clear. Interestingly, COPD patients have an endothelial dysfunction linked to the decrease of NO levels in peripheral blood vessels. In a first study, we demonstrated that iNOS and eNOS were diffusely upregulated in the lung of mice with emphysema after elastase instillation. By using iNOS-/- and eNOS -/- mice and a drug-based inhibitor of iNOS (1400W), we demonstrated that the induction of iNOS in the lung was responsible of an increase of protein nitration in alveolar type 2 cells and of an alleviated oxidation of proteins. However, neither iNOS nor eNOS were required for the development of elastase-induced inflammation and emphysema. In a second study, we evaluated the effectsof polycythemia, a common complication of hypoxic lung diseases, on the endothelial function in 15 polycythemic and 13 normocythemic patients with a COPD of equal severity. Polycythemia was associated with higher blood viscosity and a larger diameter of the brachial artery but with a similar calculated wall shear stress (WSS). We studied the flow-mediated brachial arteryvasodilation and the forearm blood-flow responses to endothelium- and non-endothelium-dependent N-monomethyl-L-arginine (LNMMA) infusion by plethysmography. We demonstrated that systemic arteries in polycythemic patients adjust appropriately to chronic or acute WSS elevations by an appropriate basal and stimulated NO release. Overall, our results suggest that moderate polycythemia has no adverse effect on vascular function in COPD.
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Laurent Boyer. Rôle du Monoxyde d'Azote (NO) et des NO synthases dans la physiopathologie de la BPCO et de ses complications cardiovasculaires. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Est, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PEST0081⟩. ⟨tel-00733086⟩

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