Contribution de la télédétection à l’évaluation des fonctions des zones humides : de l’observation à la modélisation prospective

Sebastien Rapinel 1
1 LETG - Rennes - Littoral, Environnement, Télédétection, Géomatique
LETG - Littoral, Environnement, Télédétection, Géomatique UMR 6554
Abstract : Interfacing between land and water systems, wetlands perform multiple functions and values that are now widely recognized. Inventory, delineation, but also characterization and monitoring of wetlands are now a priority to address the regression and in some cases the loss of these ecosystems. While wetland delineation is widely performed, the assessment of their functions has been only made on small sites of several hectares, whereas it is necessary to evaluate wetland functional status on larger areas to manage them. The objectives of this thesis are to develop a method to map wetland functions on areas greater than a hundred square kilometers, evaluate optical remote sensing data with very high spatial resolution to produce indicators of functional status of wetlands, and assess the impact of land use change on these functions. For this, the FAP approach has been adapted and applied to two sites located in Brittany and Dordogne. Once having defined and characterized wetlands from remotely sensed data, the spatial indicators derived from these data were used to evaluate hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological wetland functions. The evolution of these functions was then simulated under different scenarios of land use changes. The results show the usefulness of remotely sensed data, especially LiDAR data, to accurately characterize the micro-topography, drainage network and vegetation of wetlands. The functional potential of wetlands can therefore be mapped at different scales from the plot to the whole site for various functions. The simulation of land-use changes for the period 2000–2030 and the evaluation of their impact on wetland functions can be a tool for managing these environments
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Sebastien Rapinel. Contribution de la télédétection à l’évaluation des fonctions des zones humides : de l’observation à la modélisation prospective. Histoire. Université Rennes 2, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012REN20029⟩. ⟨tel-00731169⟩

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