Analyse et modélisation de l'évolution des indicateurs de la fertilité des sols cultivés en zone cotonnière du Togo

Abstract : Using data observed during 20 to 40 years in different agro-ecosystems of Togo, we analyzed soil fertility dynamic under different agricultural management practices. Tree soil C models of varying complexity were tested, and the most accurate in terms of soil C dynamics description in these tropical soils was associated with the QUEFTS model and with nutrient partial balance to analyze the effect of each agricultural management practice. Results indicated that, although fertilizers N, P and K were continuously applied at a recommended rate by the research (RR) or at this rate increased in 50% (1.5RR), initial cotton and cereals yields of 1.5 to 2 t ha˗1 and 2 to 3 t ha˗1, respectively, decreased to around 1 t ha-1 after 20 years of soil cultivation. Alternation of 2 or 3 consecutive years of fallow plot with 3 years cropping did not improved crops yields as compared with continuous cropping system, but tends to stabilize crops production in the long-term. In the upper soil 20 cm, soil C stock of 15 to 39 t ha˗1 after vegetation clearance dropped faster during the first years to reached equilibrium after only 10 to 15 years of soil cultivation. Such a decrease was less depended on soil C input and was accurately descried with a two-pool C model, running on an annual time step basis. Calibrated decomposition rate of labile soil C ranged between 0.15 and 0.24, and stable soil C pool represented 33 to 67% of initial total C; while soil C that was resistant for hydrolyze acid was about 30% of initial total C. Soil N stock was also decreased faster and less associated with a rate of N input to soil. Application of NPK at 1.5RR during 20 years contributed significantly to soil pH decrease and pronounced soil Ca and Mg decreases, which respectively were 20 and 40% more than in plots that were not fertilized. We concluded that, association of Ca/Mg and NPK at a recommended rate would be (more than over-dosage of P and K) a promising option to achieving a sustainable management of mineral fertility of these soils. Minimum tillage, associated with external C input, would be an asset to a sustainable management of organic fertility of these soils.
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Sciences de la Terre. Université de Bourgogne, 2011. Français. <NNT : 2011DIJOS085>


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Kokou Kintche. Analyse et modélisation de l'évolution des indicateurs de la fertilité des sols cultivés en zone cotonnière du Togo. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Bourgogne, 2011. Français. <NNT : 2011DIJOS085>. <tel-00728812>

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