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Propagation d'ondes de choc dans les milieux aléatoires avec des inhomogénéités distribuées dans l'espace ou dans une couche mince

Abstract : Propagation of nonlinear acoustic waves in inhomogeneous media is an important problem inmany research domains of modern theoretical and applied acoustics. For example, studies onpropagation of high amplitude N-waves in turbulent atmosphere are relevant to the sonic boomproblem which involves high interest due to development of new civil supersonic aircrafts. Inrelation to sonic boom problem, many studies on spark-generated N-wave propagation through aturbulent layer were carried out in model laboratory-scale experiments which are more controlledand reproducible than field measurements. Propagation of high intensity focused ultrasound intissue (HIFU) is intensively studied for medical applications. HIFU is a basis of new surgicaldevices for noninvasive thermal and mechanical ablation of tumors.In this thesis, the problem of characterization of high amplitude N-waves generated in air byan electric spark was studied using combined acoustical and optical methods. The fine structureof shocks was deduced from the shadowgraphy images with a resolution that cannot be obtainedusing condenser microphones. It was shown that the combination of optical and acoustical methodsallows complete characterization of the N-waves.N-wave propagation through a layer of thermal turbulence was further studied in a laboratoryexperiment. The evolution of statistical distributions and average values of the most importantN-wave parameters was investigated at different propagation distances. Experimental results werecompared to data obtained in another experiment known in literature, where N-wave was propagatedthrough kinematic turbulence. It was shown that in the case of almost the same widths ofthe turbulent layers, values of the characteristic scales and rms of refractive index fluctuations, thekinematic turbulence leads to stronger distortions of the peak pressure and the shock rise time ofthe N-wave and to 2-3 greater probabilities to observe intense focusing in caustics.Effects of nonlinear propagation and random focusing on the statistics of N-wave amplitudewere studied theoretically using the KZK equation and the phase screen model. The phase screenwas characterized by the correlation length and the refraction length – the distance where firstcaustics occur. Probability distributions, mean values and standard deviations of the N-wave peakpressure were obtained from the numerical solutions and were presented as functions of the propagationdistance and the nonlinear length. Statistical results from the KZK model were comparedwith analytical predictions of the nonlinear geometrical acoustics approach (NGA). It was shown,that NGA approach is valid only up to the distance of one third of refraction length of the screen.Strong nonlinear effects were shown to suppress amplitude fluctuations. The effect of the scale ofinhomogeneities on amplitude statistics was also investigated.The problem of focusing of ultrasound beam through inhomogeneous medium is importantfor medical diagnostics and nondestructive testing problems. The inhomogeneities of biologicaltissue or of industrial materials can destroy beam focusing. In the thesis, distortions of a weaklynonlinear diagnostic beam focused through a phase layer of special configuration were consideredexperimentally and theoretically. Feasibility of selective destruction of focusing of differentharmonics in the beam was predicted in the modeling and confirmed in experiment.The most modern HIFU devices rely on using two-dimensional multi-element phased arrayswith elements randomly distributed over a segment of a spherical surface. Numerical experimentis an important tool to characterize pressure fields created by HIFU radiators. Intensity levels atthe focus of HIFU radiators can reach several tens of thousands of W/cm2, causing nonlinearpropagation effects and formation of shocks [...]
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Petr Yuldashev. Propagation d'ondes de choc dans les milieux aléatoires avec des inhomogénéités distribuées dans l'espace ou dans une couche mince. Autre. Ecole Centrale de Lyon; Université Lomonossov (Moscou), 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ECDL0034⟩. ⟨tel-00728798⟩

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