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Quantification de l’évolution de glissements de terrain argileux par des techniques de télédétection. Application à la région du Trièves (Alpes Françaises)

Abstract : Three remote sensing techniques, Lidar, satellite radar interferometry and aerial photogrammetry are applied to quantify the spatial and temporal evolution of two clayey landslides (Avignonet and Harmalière, located in the Trièves area, French Alps) in complement to in-situ instrumentations. A geomorphological analysis based on Lidar-derived filtered DEM, coupled to analysis of ortho-photos dating back to 1948 and geophysical investigations, shows that the different evolution of the neighbouring landslides could be partly controlled by the paleotopography of the bedrock underlying the clay layer. Directional roughness is shown to help distinguishing between landsliding and gully erosion patterns. Cross-correlation technique adapted to DEMs has been developed to derive 3D-displacement-vectors between two Lidar acquisitions (2006 and 2009), paying attention on measure quality assessment. The displacement map reveals that, at the Harmalière landslide, the main sliding channel, very active from 1981 - 2001, is now relatively slow (< 0.4 m over 3 years), in contrast with four surrounding distinct areas of large movements (up to 3 m) partly with rotational components. At the Avignonet landslide, displacements generally increase towards the toe (up to 1 m near the drainage outlets). Persistent Scatterers Interferometry technique allows to derive new reliable displacement-rates (1992 - 2000) at 16 points of the Avignonet landslide, consistent with GPS time-series. The long-term average headscarp retreat rates are estimated to 1 - 5 cm/y at Avignonet and 7 - 14cm/y at Harmalière. The retreat of the Avignonet landslide seems to be controlled by the erosion of the top of the underlying compacted alluvial layers. The presence of a paleovalley (Drac river) below the Harmalière toe could explain the difference of kinematics between the two landslides.
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Ulrich Kniess. Quantification de l’évolution de glissements de terrain argileux par des techniques de télédétection. Application à la région du Trièves (Alpes Françaises). Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENU038⟩. ⟨tel-00728238⟩

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