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L'industrialisation du logement en France (1885-1970) : De la construction légère et démontable à la construction lourde et architecturale

Abstract : The thesis focuses on the industrialization of housing in France (1885-1970), from the lightweight and removable construction to the heavy construction and architecture. The purpose of this thesis is placed at the interface of four major topics: the existence of industrialization before the World War II, the technical policy of the Ministry of Reconstruction and Urbanism (MRU), projects after the Second World War that applied the methods of industrialization imposed by the State, and the principles of the Charter of Athens. The study period extends from 1885, the first witness of European industrialization of the building, to 1970ties of questioning of this type of construction. The industrialization of the building has very old roots; it grows primarily in the military, for the needs of the colonial conquest, campaigns, wars, which inflamed the Europe. The beach cabin or the shack resort, the canvas tent, canopy of market, are as much constructive figures which are proliferating at the end of the nineteenth century. Especially, the colonial expeditions conducted drums requiring speed, security, capacity: the shack is the industrial solution. Industrialization continues to be not light anymore but heavy. It is the main route for the State because it decreases the cost price of the construction, reduces the interventions and improves the comfort of the housing. From 1945, the French State newly invests in the most stricken, encourages innovation based on the employment of materials and techniques in establishing the technical approval of the "new materials and non-traditional methods of construction". In the first part of this research, i have tried to show that there is an industrialization of the building before the Second World War. Industrialization occupied "brutally" lightweight construction in the 1890s. The shack removable and transportable, military becomes the object of competitions, confrontations, of interest of warriors in Western Europe. Dozens of models are prefabricated and really mounted in the fields of battles or in anticipation of territorial conquest. In a second time i have chosen to continue the story in the heavy construction in the after war, specifically the construction of the housing. Therefore i chose to study two outstanding projects of the period just after the Second World War. First is the project of Noisy-le-Sec, through which the state tried to test the processes and new materials to use fewer the raw materials and energy, to simplify the implementation, to raise awareness of these innovations to advance technology and contribute to the improvement of the habitat (interior comfort and equipment). To do this, it imported new processes and imposed changes in pace and scale. Second is the project of Grandes Terres: The site of the project of Grandes Terres could be considered as the first masterpiece of heavy housing prefabrication. In addition the project of Grandes Terres affirms a new way of thinking about the city and its report to the habitat, it is one of the successful applications of the Charter of Athens, bible of the urbanism of Lods, and a reference for the urban development’s decades 60 and 70. Finally, to develop this academic research I have taken the party "chronologically":1885-1940 "the lightweight construction and demountable", 1940-1970, "the heavy prefabrication and Unremovable", 1945-1953 "the city of experience of Noisy-le-sec", 1952-1956, "the completed model which is the most successful of major operations, the project of Grandes Terres".
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Submitted on : Monday, September 3, 2012 - 12:04:36 PM
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Kinda Fares. L'industrialisation du logement en France (1885-1970) : De la construction légère et démontable à la construction lourde et architecturale. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers - CNAM, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012CNAM0799⟩. ⟨tel-00727276⟩

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