Abstract : This thesis work provides a complete study of a 1-5 /lm infrared camera designed to be used with the Adaptive Optics system installed at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 3.6m telescope, from the laboratory characterization of the IRCCD 128X128 HgCdTe Focal Plane Array (FPA). to astronomical results obtained on a sampIe of Pre-Main-Sequence binaries. This document includes three parts which follow the "natural" chronological sequence of the study. The first part is related to the laboratory characterization of the FPA, followed by its setting in operation at the telescope, within the COMIC camera. This part was started at the Laboratoire Infrarouge-LETI /DOPT /CEA-Grenoble) and finished at ESO-La Silla Observatory. The second part deals with the specificities of IR observations with Adaptive Optics. This part illustrates the experience acquired during a long stay at ESO. It makes the link between the technical work of the first part and the observer's point of view. To finish , an illustration of the astronomical capabilities of the instrument (COMIC+ADONIS) is given in the third part, in the framework of a well-defined astronomical program. This program concerns the study of the circumstellar material in Pre-Main-Sequence binaries. This last part was done at the Observatoire de Grenoble.