Abstract : This thesis deals with automorphisms of real algebraic surfaces, which are polynomial transformations with a polynomial inverse. The main concern is whether their restriction to the real locus reflects all the richness of the complex dynamics. This question is declined in two directions: the topological entropy and the Fatou set. For the first one, we introduce a purely geometric quantity depending only on the surface, and we call it concordance. Then we show that the ratio of real and complex entropies is linked to this quantity. The concordance is explicitely computed for many examples of surfaces, especially abelian surfaces which are broadly studied, as well assome K3 surfaces. In the second part, we are interested in the Fatou set, which corresponds to complex points for which the dynamics is simple. Thanks to previous results of Dinh and Sibony about closed positive currents, we prove that this set is hyperbolic in the sense of Kobayashi, after possibly deleting some curves which are fixed by (an iterate of) our transformation. From this property we deduce that, except for some exceptional cases in which the topology of the real locus is simple and the dynamics well understood, this real locus cannot be entirely contained in the Fatou set. Thus the complexity of the dynamics is observable on real points in most cases.