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Theses

Generation and Application of Attosecond Pulses

Abstract : To capture electronic rearrangements inside a molecule or during chemical reactions, attosecond (as, 1 as =10−18 s) time resolution is needed. To create a light pulse with this duration, the central frequency has to be in the XUV range and cover several tens of eVs. Moreover, the frequency components have to be synchronized. The so called High Harmonic Generation (HHG) in gases well suits this task. During this process a high intensity laser pulse is focused in a gas jet, where its electric field bends the potential barrier of an atom allowing an electron wave packet (EWP) to tunnel ionize. Following the electric field of the laser the EWP gets accelerated, gaining a large kinetic energy that may be released as a high energy (XUV) photon in the event of a re-collision with the ionic core. These recolliding EWP probe the structure and dynamics of the core in a self-probing scheme: the EWP, that is emitted by the molecule at a certain time, probes itself later. More precisely, this ”self-probing” scheme gives access to the complex valued recombination dipole moment (RDM) of the molecule which is determined by both the nuclear and electronic structure. The recombination encodes these characteristics into the spectral amplitude, phase and polarization state of the harmonic radiation emitted by the dipole. Due to the coherent nature of HHG it is possible to measure all these three parameters. Moreover, it is in principle possible through a tomographic procedure to reconstruct the radiating orbital.The objective of my thesis was two-fold. By implementing advanced characterization techniques of the harmonic amplitude, phase and polarization we studied i) the electronic structure of N2 and laser induced multi-channel tunnel ionization. We presented the reconstruction of molecular orbitals and revealed the ionization channel dependent ultrafast nuclear vibration. We also studied ii) the reflectivity and dispersion of recently designed chirped XUV mirrors that can shape the temporal profile of attosecond pulses. With these mirrors we could control the spectral phase over 20 eV and compensate the GDD of the harmonics or introduce a TOD. We also proposed a novel attosecond pulse shaper.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00722473, version 1

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Zsolt Diveki. Generation and Application of Attosecond Pulses. Other [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. English. ⟨NNT : 2011PA112290⟩. ⟨tel-00722473⟩

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