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Theses

Compréhension et modélisation des processus hydrologique dans un petit bassin versant périurbain à l'aide d'une approche spatialisée orientée objet et modulaire. Application aux sous-basins de la chaudanne et du mercier (bassin de l'Yzeron, France)

Abstract : Urban expansion mainly affects peri-urban areas. These areas are subject to rapid modifications such as an increase of impervious areas or concentration of runoff in sewer systems. These changes have an impact on local hydrology and can induce floods, pollution or decrease of groundwater resource. Modelling tools allowing a quantification of the sensitivity of peri-urban catchments to urbanization are therefore useful in this context. The hypothesis underlying this PhD is that a continuous distributed hydrological model, taking explicitly into account the spatial organization of the landscape (urban, agricultural, forest areas, hedges,..) and the water pathways, as determined by topography but also roads and sewer networks, can help to understand and hierarchize the role of various landscape elements on the hydrological response of small hydrosystems. We therefore designed the Peri-Urban Model for landscape MAnagement (PUMMA) simulating the rainfall-runoff processes both in urban and in rural areas. For this, the urban model URBS was integrated into the LIQUID modelling framework already containing modules describing hydrological processes in rural areas. Additionally, three process modules were developed describing sewer overflow devices, overland flow as well as retention basins and lakes. PUMMA follows an object-oriented approach. The landscape is discretized into cadastral parcels in urban areas and irregular hydrological response units in rural areas. In order to apply PUMMA to the catchment scale, automatic methods were developed for the pre-processing of the geographical data. Furthermore, a method for the delineation of suburban catchments including the separation into dry and wet weather contributing areas was developed. The model was then applied to the Chaudanne catchment, a sub-basin of the Yzeron, located in the peri-urban area of Lyon, France. The model was run continuously for two contrasting years (dry and humid) using parameters values taken from observations and the literature. Although summer peak discharge is often overestimated, the results show that, the model is able to simulate realistically the observed discharges and in particular different responses under dry and wet conditions, controlled by the soil saturation. Sensitivity tests to various processes/parameters showed the importance of the urban influenced processes on the hydrological response, in particular surface runoff generation on impervious and natural urban surfaces, infiltration into the sewer system and the connexion of urban areas to the natural hydrographic network. Soil depth and lateral saturated hydraulic conductivity were also found influential on the base flow dynamics. We finally showed the model potential for the evaluation of various rain water management scenarios.
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Sonja Jankowfsky. Compréhension et modélisation des processus hydrologique dans un petit bassin versant périurbain à l'aide d'une approche spatialisée orientée objet et modulaire. Application aux sous-basins de la chaudanne et du mercier (bassin de l'Yzeron, France). Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENU051⟩. ⟨tel-00721988⟩

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