Caractérisation du rayonnement acoustique d'un rail à l'aide d'un réseau de microphones

Abstract : In France, railway transport has been boosted by the expansion of the high-speed rail service and the resurgent implantation of tram networks in many city centers. In this context, the reduction of noise pollution becomes a crucial issue for its development. In order to directly act on the source area, it is necessary to precisely identify and study the sources responsible for this nuisance at train pass-by. Among all the potential approaches, microphone arrays and related signal processing techniques are particularly adapted to the characterization of omnidirectional and uncorrelated moving point sources. For speeds up to 300 km/h, rolling noise is the main railway noise source. It arises from the acoustic radiation of various elements such as wheels, rail or sleepers. The rail, which mainly contributes to rolling noise at mid-frequencies (from 500 Hz to 1000 Hz approximately), is an extended coherent source for which classical array processing methods are inappropriate. The characterization method proposed in this thesis is an inverse parametric optimization method that uses the acoustical signals measured by a microphone array. The unknown parameters of a vibro-acoustical model are estimated through the minimization of a least square criterion applied to the entries of the measured and modelled spectral matrices. In this vibro-acoustical model, the rail is considered as a cylindrical monopole whose lengthwise amplitude distribution is obtained from the vibratory velocity one. The different models proposed to obtain this velocity highlight the propagation of vibration waves towards both sides of every forcing point. Each wave is characterized by an amplitude at the forcing point, a real structural wavenumber and a decay rate. These parameters are estimated by the minimization of the least square criterion, and are then used in the vibro-acoustical model to rebuild the acoustical field radiated by the rail. First, simulations are performed in order to appraise the performances of the proposed method, in the case of vertical point excitations. In particular, its robustness to additive noise and to uncertainties in the model parameters that are supposed to be known is tested. The effect of using simplified models is also investigated. Results show that the method is efficient and robust for the amplitude estimation of the nearest contacts to the array. On the other hand, the estimation of the other parameters is improved when the array is shifted away from the contact points. The wavenumber is generally well estimated over the entire frequency range, and when the decay rate is low, a single beamforming technique may be sufficient. Concerning the decay rate estimation, the efficiency of the method is limited by the low sensitivity of the criterion. At last, measurements are performed in order to verify some results obtained from the simulations. The vibratory model is first validated for the vertical flexural waves trough the use of an impact hammer. Then, the parametric optimization method is tested by the vertical excitation of the rail with a modal shaker. The main simulation results are found, and some particular behavior due to other waves existing in the rail can be observed, opening the perspective of a generalized method including more complex vibratory modelings.
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Baldrik Faure. Caractérisation du rayonnement acoustique d'un rail à l'aide d'un réseau de microphones. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENT087⟩. ⟨tel-00721959⟩

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