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Theses

Variétés toriques : phylogénie et catégorie dérivées

Abstract : The aim of this thesis is to investigate the properties of special toric varieties. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first two of them are strongly related to each other.In the fi rst, main part we study algebraic varieties associated to Markov processes on trees. To each Markov process on a tree one can associate an algebraic variety. Motivated by biology, we focus on Markov processes de fined by a group action. We investigate underwhich conditions the obtained variety is toric. We provide conditions ensuring that the obtained varieties are normal, as well as give examples when they are not. One of the main tools we use is the generalization of the notions of sockets and networks introduced in [BW07] to arbitrary abelian groups. In our setting the networks form a group, that acts on the variety. Moreover the ambient space of the variety is the regular representation of this group.The main open problem that we address in this part is a conjecture of Sturmfels and Sullivant [SS05, Conjecture 2] stating that the afi ne scheme associated to the 3-Kimura model is de fined by an ideal generated in degree 4. Our strongest result states that the associated projective scheme can be generated in degree 4. Together with Maria Donten -Bury we also propose a method for generating the ideal defi ning the variety for any model. We prove that our method works for many models and trees if and only if the conjecture of Sturmfels and Sullivant holds. We present some applications, for example to theidenti ability problem in biology.The second part concerns algebraic varieties associated to trivalent graphs for the binary Jukes-Cantor model. It is a joint work with Weronika Buczyńska, Jarosław Buczyński and Kaie Kubjas. In case of the graph, the associated variety can be represented by a graded semigroup. We investigate the connections between properties of the graph and the semigroup. The main theorem bounds the degree in which the semigroup is generated by the first Betti number of the graph plus one. Due to connections with the first part much of the terminology that we use is either a specialization or generalization of previous de finitions. From the one hand, as we are working with graphs with possible loops the notions of leaves, nodes and valency are more subtile than for trees. From the other hand, as we are dealing only with the binary Jukes-Cantor model, sockets and networks have got a very special form.In the last part we study the structure of the derived category of coherent sheaves for smooth toric varieties. As a result of a joint work with Michał Lasoń [LM11] we construct a full, strongly exceptional collection of line bundles for a large class of smooth, complete toric varieties with Picard number three. Many questions concerning what kind of collections should be expected on toric varieties of certain types are still open. As a contribution we prove that Pn blown up in two points does not have a full, strongly exceptional collection of line bundles for n large enough. This provides an in finite collection of counterexamples to King's conjecture. The first such counterexample is due to Hille andPerling [HP06]. Recently also counterexamples in the Fano case were found by E mov [E ].
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Mateusz Michalek. Variétés toriques : phylogénie et catégorie dérivées. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université de Grenoble; 122 - ACADEMIE POLONAISE DES SCIENCES, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENM015⟩. ⟨tel-00721742⟩

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