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Contribution à la modélisation et à la régulation du trafic aux intersections : intégration des communications Vehicule-Infrastructure

Abstract : In this thesis, we studied the problem of traffic control by considering the new technologies as part of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). A new control strategy is introduced to exploit the potential of infrastructure traffic at a maximum level. Specifically, based Technology VII "Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration", the road infrastructure at intersections (considered also as a controller) can communicate with autonomous vehicles that arrive at a crossroads on a continuous basis. Important data such as vehicle speed, position and destination are then received by advanced sensors and sent to the controller in real time. Therefore, it is possible to develop a strategy for traffic control by treating each vehicle as an independent entity. In other words, the right of way is assigned to each vehicle based on its status and function of the overall state of traffic at the intersection. Only vehicles that have received the right of way may cross the junction. Traffic control at an intersection is therefore to determine the sequence of passage of vehicles, that is to say the sequences distribution rights passage.Cependant, the greatest difficulty to implement this new strategy is the contradiction between the optimization of sequences of passes of vehicles and time complexity. To resolve this contradiction, we first mathematically formulated the problem of regulation and we then studied its complexity. We proved initially that the problem of traffic control at the intersection isolated formulated is NP-hard under certain conditions (arbitrary number of groups CFA compliant streams, ...) and this is based on reducing the problem of 3-Partition. In a second step, we applied the methods of accurate resolutions on an isolated intersection to propose exact algorithms (Branch and Bound and Dynamic Programming) for finding an optimal sequence of passage. Several properties of the problem have been introduced and this proved and so they are exploited by these algorithms. These properties are intended to significantly reduce the search space and consequently the execution time of these algorithms exacts.Par Moreover, we have not limited our research on isolated intersections but we applied the approach control proposed a network of nodes while considering a single controller. However, an exact algorithm applied to several intersections can not be fast enough especially when you need to communicate information almost instantaneously to vehicles (real time). So we proposed methods to find approximate resolutions in a reasonable time a sequence of way satisfactory to each intersection. These algorithms (Genetic Algorithms) have indeed require less computation time while maintaining a good quality of solution.Enfin, we illustrate the implementation of deferential proposed approaches through simulation results to evaluate their performance .
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 25, 2012 - 11:57:10 AM
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Fei Yan. Contribution à la modélisation et à la régulation du trafic aux intersections : intégration des communications Vehicule-Infrastructure. Ordinateur et société [cs.CY]. Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012BELF0175⟩. ⟨tel-00720641⟩

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