Abstract : Wireless communication proliferates into nearly each aspect of the human society, driving to the exponential growth in number of permanently connected devices. Powerful smart-phones and tablets, ubiquitous wireless broadband access, and machine-to-machine communications gen- erate volumes of data traffic that were unpredictable few years back. In this novel paradigm, the telecommunication industry has to simultaneously guarantee the economical sustainability of broadband wireless communications and users' quality of experience. Additionally, there is a strong social incentive to reduce the carbon footprint due to mobile communications, which has notably increased in the last decade. In this context, the integration of femtocells in cellular networks is a low-power, low-cost solution to offer high data rates to indoor customers and simultaneously offload the macrocell network. However, the massive and unplanned deployment of femtocell access points and their uncoordinated operations may result in harmful co-channel interference. Moreover, a high number of lightly loaded cells increases the network energy consumption. In this thesis, we investigate the effects of femtocells deployment on the cellular network energy efficiency. Moreover, we look into adaptive mechanisms for femtocell networks as a means to pave the way towards agile and economically viable mobile communications. Our goal is to dynamically match resource demand and offered capacity in order to limit the average power consumption and co-channel interference while guaranteeing quality of service constraints. We take advantage of the unusual communication context of femtocells to propose resource allocation and network management schemes that coordinate the access points activity, power consumption, and coverage. Simulation results show that our proposals improve system energy efficiency and users' performance in both networked and stand-alone femtocell deployment scenarios.