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Contribution à la commande de robot mobile poly-articulé à roues sur sol naturel : application à la conduite autonome des engins agricoles

Abstract : Agriculture has today the challenge to increase its productivity in order to supply enough food for the growing needs of the world population. However, this activity strongly damages environmental ressources as water and soil, and new solutions are today required to reduce the impact of agricultural practices on environment. Automatic guidance systems for farm vehicles are some new technologies that contribute to this objective, allowing accurate path following in the fields and therefore improving efficiency and quality of the agricultural work carried out. Essential functionalities are however absent in these systems, as the capacities to compensate for the crabway motion of the vehicle on sliding sloping fields, to control the trajectories of the towed implement,and to perform U-turn maneuvers in headland. This thesis studies these problems through the control in presence of sliding of a poly-articulated wheeled mobile robot called RMPA, composed of a four-wheel-steering vehicle and n passive trailers hooked up at some distance from the rear axle of the previous one. An extended kinematic model of the RMPA is first used in order to take into account for the sliding effects on the overall behaviour of the robot. The sliding parameters, introduced on each rolling and steering axle of the RMPA, are estimated using a state observer built as a control law. The reference path [gamma] to be followed is either previously learned or specially planned using elementary primitives connected together with pieces of clothoid to produce the U-turn maneuvers. In a first step, both front and rear steering actuations of the robot are used to accurately control both lateral and angular deviations of the RMPA's four-wheel-steering vehicle with respect to [gamma] : the control of the front steering wheels is based on the transformation of the extended kinematic model into a chained system, allowing to dissociate the lateral and longitudinal commands, and on exact linearization techniques in order to servo lateral deviation. The control of the rear steering wheels is built from the angular deviation dynamic and ensures the convergence of the vehicle deviation to the desired set point. In a second step, these control laws are extended to control the lateral deviation of the ith trailer of the RMPA with respect to [gamma] : a backstepping approach is proposed to calculate the control law for the RMPA's front steering wheels from the study of a virtual control law for the ith trailer. Finally, the longitudinal control law of the RMPA is based on model predictive control, in order to accurately follow the velocity references linked to [gamma]. Numerous experiments relying on an actual RMPA, composed of a passive trailer hooked up at some distance from the rear axle of a four-wheel-steering vehicle, permit to validate the various approaches presented in this thesis and to appreciate the capabilities of the proposed control laws.
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Christophe Cariou. Contribution à la commande de robot mobile poly-articulé à roues sur sol naturel : application à la conduite autonome des engins agricoles. Autre. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012CLF22235⟩. ⟨tel-00720208⟩

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