Abstract : Nominative medical data exchange is a growing challenge containing numerous technical, legislative or relationship barriers. New advanced technologies, in the particular field of grid computing, offer a new approach to handle medical data exchange. The development of the gLite grid middleware within the EGEE project opened new perspectives in distributed data access and database federation. The main requirements of a medical data exchange system, except the high level of security, come from the way to collect and provide data. The original client-server model of computing has many drawbacks regarding data ownership, updates, control, availability and scalability. The method described in this dissertation uses another philosophy in accessing medical data. Using the grid security layer and a robust user access authentication and control system, we build up a dedicated grid network able to federate distributed medical databases. In this way, data owners keep control over the data they produce.This approach is therefore not totally straightforward, especially for patient identification and medical data linkage which is an open problem even in centralized medical systems. A new method is then proposed to handle these specific issues in a highly distributed environment. The Sentinelle project (RSCA) constitutes the applicative framework of this project in the field of cancer screening in French Auvergne region. The first objective is to allow anatomic pathology reports exchange between laboratories and screening structures compliant with pathologists' requirements and legal issues. Then, the second goal is to provide a framework for epidemiologists to access high quality medical data for statistical studies and global epidemiology.