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Pratiques traditionnelles, valeur alimentaire et toxicité du taro (Colocasia esculenta L. SCHOTT) produit au Tchad

Abstract : Colocasia esculenta L SCHOTT is a valuable tuber widely consumed in Chad by humans and livestock. There is very little available literature about the cultivation and the post-harvest traditional technologies of the Chadian varieties of taro. A survey was carried out in the Mayo-Kebbi region ( Chad) where taro is a widely cultivated. There are two main varieties of taro in Chad : the " Gouning souol " variety, a local variety characterized by an important level of acridity and the prolonged cooking time (6 to 8 hours). The presence of these properties led to the replacement of the cultivation of this variety by the " Gouning sosso " variety which presents a lower level of acridity and a shorter cooking time (45 to 60 minutes). A traditional process to reduce the acridity and decrease the cooking time consists in dipping the slices of fresh taro in the water, or in a corn solution or in a tamarind infusion for a period of 24 to 48 hours according to the intensity of the acridity. After drying in the sun, the dried chips are ground into flour. This flour is then used to prepare mixtures of porridge, soups and cakes. Analyses were carried out on samples of taro flour produced in accordance with the traditional methods of soaking to determine the effects of this traditional process. Fresh taro chips were dipped over a period of 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours in the water, or in the corn infusion or in the tamarind infusion. Each sample was then dried in the sun for 48 hours and ground into flour. Dry matter, crude protein, ash, crude fiber, minerals and various trace elements were assessed. The in vitro digestibility of taro starch using α-amylase enzyme and the amount of total oxalates in the different taro flour were also determined. The soaking in the tamarind infusion induced a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in protein content (from 3.26 % for the control sample to 2.68 % for the treatment with the tamarind infusion at T24). The other treatments (corn solution and water) reduced also the protein level of taro but not significantly. The crude fibre content was not affected by the tamarind infusion but decreased significantly in the other treatments at the threshold level of 5 %. All methods of soaking led to a significant decrease of the mineral contents, except for an increase in sodium (due to the quality of the water used to prepare solutions) and in phosphorus (probably due to the hydrolysis of phytates by the corn infusion). A significant loss in trace element (Iron) was observed, decreasing from 144 mg / kg of DM (control sample) to 78 mg / kg of DM (after 12 hours of water soaking) corresponding to a loss of 45.83 %. The lowest decrease in iron level was observed after the treatment by the tamarind infusion (31.25 % after 24 hours). All the soaking processes were seen to have improved the digestibility of taro flour. By simply cooking (at a temperature of 95°C for 30 minutes), the in vitro digestibility increased from 39.30 % for the control sample to 78.67 % for the water treated samples of taro. After three hours of soaking, the taro flour treated by the solution of corn becomes significantly more digestible (77.12 %) than by the two other treatments [tamarind (60.86 %), water (60.45 %)] that are statistically similar. (...)
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Imar Djibrine Soudy. Pratiques traditionnelles, valeur alimentaire et toxicité du taro (Colocasia esculenta L. SCHOTT) produit au Tchad. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011CLF22153⟩. ⟨tel-00719605⟩

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