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Caractérisation des capacités métaboliques des populations microbiennes impliquées dans les processus de bioremédiation des chloroéthènes par des approches moléculaires haut débit : les biopuces ADN fonctionnelles

Abstract : Chlorinated solvents are among the most frequent contaminants found in groundwater and subsurface ecosystems. Because of their high toxicity and carcinogenicity, they represent a serious risk for human health and the environment. Thus, such polluted sites need a rehabilitation treatment. Among remediation solutions, microbial bioremediation represents a less invasive and expensive alternative than physico-chemical treatments. However, the process efficiency greatly depends on the environmental conditions and the microbial populations’ biodegradation capacities. Therefore, bioremediation treatment optimization requires the identification and monitoring of such capacities before and during the treatment. Functional Gene Arrays (FGA), by profiling environmental communities in a flexible and easy-to-use manner, are well adapted for an application in bioremediation. But, constructing efficient microarrays dedicated to microbial ecology requires a probe design step allowing the selection of highly sensitive, specific and explorative oligonucleotides. After a detailed state of the art on probe design strategies suitable for microbial ecology studies, we present new software, called HiSpOD, generating efficient explorative probes for FGA dedicated to environmental applications. Finally, this bioinformatics tool was used to construct a FGA targeting most genes involved in chloroethenes biodegradation pathways which allowed the evaluation of biostimulation treatments conducted on indigenous bacterial populations for several industrial contaminated sites.
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Submitted on : Friday, July 20, 2012 - 11:02:22 AM
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Eric Dugat-Bony. Caractérisation des capacités métaboliques des populations microbiennes impliquées dans les processus de bioremédiation des chloroéthènes par des approches moléculaires haut débit : les biopuces ADN fonctionnelles. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011CLF22175⟩. ⟨tel-00719578⟩

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