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Etude pétrologique et expérimentale des chondrites CV-CK et conditions du métamorphisme des astéroïdes carbonés

Abstract : Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) are primitive objects accreted during the earliest stage of the Solar System formation. Mainly composed of chondrules, matrix and refractory inclusions, CCs recorded chemical, isotopic and mineralogical heterogeneities of the solar nebula. Unlike other chondrite classes, most CCs are primitive (petrologic types 1 to 3), i.e., they have not been affected by thermal parent-body processes. However, CK chondrites suffered an intense metamorphism (petrologic types 4 to 6). The CK group is characterized by recrystallized matrices, equilibrated olivines (∼Fa31), a high level of oxidation (Ni-rich olivines, metal/magnetite ratio close to zero), low contents of refractory inclusions, refractory lithophile abundances intermediate between CV and CO groups, and oxygen isotope compositions overlapping the CV and CO groups. CKs have been poorly studied until the 1990’s, in part due to the small number of classified samples (210 as of December 6th, 2011), and their small masses (median mass∼33.5g). Isotopic and major element compositions support a genetic link with CV3s. Since1990, recent discoveries of CKs, in particular of CK3s recovered by systematic Antarctic and Saharan collects, allow a detailed study of the CK metamorphic evolution, especially at the 3–4 transition. The objective of this study is the characterization of the conditions of metamorphism of CKs, and through analyses of several CK3–4 samples, the study of the CV-CK relationship. The detailed characterization of the metamorphic evolution of 19 CKs, including 5 CK3, confirms that observed differences between chondritic components in CVs and CKs (abundance, mineralogy, texture) can be explained by a secondary HT-BP thermal process (∼300–650°C) under oxidizing conditions (∼NNO). Moreover, durations of metamorphism obtained by the analysis of diffusion profiles in CK chondrules are intermediate between those commonly admitted for shock (few seconds to several days) and for short-lived radionuclides decay (several million years). An experimental study, using a 1-atmosphere furnace with controlled oxygen fugacity, provides additional arguments for the CV-CK relationship. We reproduced characteristic CK textures and obtained olivine iron contents of equilibrated CVs close to those measured in CKs. These experiments confirm that CKs can be considered as reequilibrated CVs. Thus, the current classification of CVs and CKs in two distinct groups should be modified in order to account for the existence of the CV-CK continuous metamorphic series from type 3 to 6. We propose to consider radiative heating as a possible cause of metamorphism for CKs. Numerical thermal modeling indicates that carbonaceous meteoroids with low perihelia (between 0.07 and 0.15 AU) can be heated at temperatures up to 780°C. Pre-atmospheric sizes estimated for CVs and CKs (from a few centimeters to 2.5 meters) support this thermal process. Fragmentation of an homogeneous CV-type parent body (possibly the parent asteroid at the origin of the Eos family) could be the source of meteoroids which, due to resonances, move toward the Sun and thus be metamorphosed by radiative heating. This secondary thermal process, affecting only small asteroid fragments, should not be considered as a parent-body process in the sense that it did not occur on the asteroid before its disruption.
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Submitted on : Friday, July 20, 2012 - 10:52:30 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00719574, version 1

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Noël Chaumard. Etude pétrologique et expérimentale des chondrites CV-CK et conditions du métamorphisme des astéroïdes carbonés. Sciences de la Terre. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012CLF22226⟩. ⟨tel-00719574⟩

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