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Localisation et cartographie simultanées de l'environnement à bord de véhicules autonomes : analyse de solutions fondées sur le filtrage de Kalman

Abstract : In order to be autonomous, a mobile robot must be able to describe the environment where it evolves. To this end, the robot must localize itself and make a map of the environment if no one is available.With this information, it will able, for example, to avoid obstacles and therefore, to navigate safely. This ability is a compulsory step on the way of its complete autonomy. The subject handled in this document deals with this problem. It refers to simultaneous vehicle localization and environment mapping (SLAM). In order to solve this problem, a lot of solutions exists. These methods use different environment representations but also different estimators. The first and second chapters of this manuscript suggest a state of the art of approaches proposed during the last decade. This study showed three important points when an extended Kalman filter is used in a SLAM context : - when a range finder is used as exteroceptive sensor, environment is represented with only one feature kind in the majority of works. The estimated map is not representative of the explored environment ; - estimates obtained with an EKF-SLAM filter are not consistent. Some articles underline this fact but few articles have carried out a complete study of this problem ; - EKF-SLAM approach, like it has been introduced, does not answer system observability criteria. The goal of my research works is not to suggest a new EKF-SLAM application but a study of the quoted problems. For each studied problem, a solution is introduced and criticized by means of simulation and experiment results.
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Submitted on : Thursday, July 19, 2012 - 3:21:57 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00719341, version 1

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François Chanier. Localisation et cartographie simultanées de l'environnement à bord de véhicules autonomes : analyse de solutions fondées sur le filtrage de Kalman. Automatique / Robotique. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010CLF22021⟩. ⟨tel-00719341⟩

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