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Modélisation analytique et caractérisation expérimentale de microphones capacitifs en hautes fréquences : étude des couches limites thermiques, effets des perforations de l’électrode arrière sur la déformée de membrane

Abstract : Condenser microphones are reciprocal transducers whose properties (sensitivity, bandwidth and reliability) make them powerful measurement tools. So far, they have been commonly used as receivers in the audible frequency range, in air at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature, they have been appropriately characterised in this context for nearly thirty years. But nowadays, their miniaturisation (using MEMS processes) and their new use for metrological purposes (as receivers as well as transmitters) require much deeper theoretical and experimental characterisations because they require an accurate knowledge of their behaviour in high frequency ranges (up to 100 kHz), in gas mixtures, whose properties differ from those of air, and under pressure and temperature conditions much higher or much lower than standard conditions. Thus, here, -i/ the effects of the thermal boundary layers are introduced in the model (only viscous boundary layers are usually accounted for), leading, in the first chapter, to an analysis of the thermal diffusion of thin bodies (whose scope is beyond the strict frame of capacitive transducers), ii/ the influence of the holes in the backing electrode on the dynamic behaviour of the membrane is initially handled with an original analytical method which allows expressing the non-uniform boundary conditions at the surface of the backing electrode as fictitious localised sources associated to uniform boundary conditions (second chapter), -iii/ new analytical solutions, depending both on the radial and azimuthal coordinates, for the pressure field and for the displacement field inside the cavities behind the membrane are expressed using modal theories in agreement with the strong couplings which occur between the different parts of the transducer (chapter three), -iv/ "lumped element circuits", which are more or less approximated (presented in the Appendix), more particularly result in expressing and assessing the sensitivity and the thermal noise (end of chapter three), -v/ experimental results, obtained from measurements of the displacement field of the membrane using a laser scanning vibrometer, both highlight and quantify for the first time the complex behaviour of the membrane in the highest frequency range, and finally lead to the validation of the theoretical results and therefore, the models presented here (even if the latter may still be improved as outlined in the conclusion).
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 17, 2012 - 12:33:10 PM
Last modification on : Friday, October 8, 2021 - 5:58:02 PM
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2011LEMA1020._converti.pdf
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  • HAL Id : tel-00718450, version 1

Citation

Thomas Lavergne. Modélisation analytique et caractérisation expérimentale de microphones capacitifs en hautes fréquences : étude des couches limites thermiques, effets des perforations de l’électrode arrière sur la déformée de membrane. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université du Maine, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LEMA1020⟩. ⟨tel-00718450⟩

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