Abstract : This thesis deals with the characterization of the anisotropic behavior of acoustic foams. Thesematerials, which are commonly used to reduce noise and vibration, are modeled by the Biot model.This model is based on the formalism of continuum mechanics of two coupled elds, one associated to the solid, and the other one associated to the saturating fluid. This work is more particularly focused on the solid parameters and on the materials having an anisotropy (i.e. properties which vary according to directions) of the solid skeleton. Here, two types of anisotropy are distinguished,the natural anisotropy of the material, and the induced anisotropy, which is due to an external action and principally caused by a static compression samples. Furthermore, three types of natural symmetries (which are the most commonly encountered) are considered : isotropy, transverseisotropy with and without rotation of principal direction.The experimental analysis of the type of the foam symmetry is performed with the device calledrigidimeter, which allows to determine the mechanical stiness of cubic samples of foam underquasi-static assumption. This device is coupled with a laser scanning vibrometer, which measures the normal displacement of the faces of cubes. Isovalues of the displacement fields of the normal surface are obtained. According to these results, it is possible to classify the different types of anisotropy by the analysis of the isovalues of the displacement fields. Thus, with these a-priori, a method was developed to determine the Poisson's ratios with minimization techniques from theother elastic constants already determined. This problem is constructed from experimental indicators and indicators taken from a finite element model.The influence of static compression on the elastic moduli is then studied. First, the variation of Young's modulus as a function of compression ratio is characterized from the rigidimeter measurement. Then, the variation of shear modulus as a function of static compression has been characterized by a method of guided waves (in collaboration with KULeuven). It was shown that variations of elastic moduli could be important because they can reach 50 %. From these experimental determinations, four areas of behavior of the foam have been identified. These four areas correspond, respectively, to effects of compression, buckling, densification and rearrangement of cells. A microstructural finite element model, in which the unit cell is modeled by a Kelvin tetrakaidecahedron,is finally proposed. This one models successfully the first three areas, which correspond to the common static compression in the acoustic applications.