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Formation de caldera par fluage d'un système hydrothermal volcanique

Abstract : The influence of a hydrothermal system within a volcanic edifice has been poorly studied with respect to volcano instability. This study deals with the relation between hydrothermal systems and tectonics, through the analysis of the deformations triggered in a volcanic cone by the flow of hydrothermally altered rocks. The presence of these clays, ductile at geological time scale, deeply changes the behaviour and the evolution of a volcanic edifice, which may lead to the formation of huge collapse structures like calderas. The comparison of analogue models with geology and geophysics allows us to interpret in this sense the collapse structures observed for example on Nuku Hiva (French Polynesia) and on the Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island). The analogue modelling also shows that the formation of the flat floor of a caldera can result from a syn-collapse process and does not necessarily involve posterior resurfacing by erosion or deposit of new eruptive products. Also, the experiments make it possible to identify the cone slope and the lowering of lateral stresses as the key parameters for explaining the birth and morphology of such calderas.
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Submitted on : Monday, July 16, 2012 - 9:38:07 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00718055, version 1

Citation

Stéphanie Barde-Cabusson. Formation de caldera par fluage d'un système hydrothermal volcanique. Volcanologie. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2007. Français. ⟨NNT : 2007CLF21752⟩. ⟨tel-00718055⟩

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