Évolution et caractérisation de structures cellulaires bidimensionnelles expérimentales, en particulier les mousses de savon, et simulées

Abstract : This thesis is dedicated to the study of bidimensional cellular structures, particularly on their evolution with time. After a transient regime, the duration of which depends on the initial order of the structure, the evolution usually reaches a stationnary regime during which the average area of cells depends linearly on time and the dimensionless characteristics of the structure, such as the topological disorder or the number of sides distribution, do not vary. A method to analyze images is introduced to characterize the structures at a given time. The metric and topological properties of the structures are determined by taking into account the corrections due to statistical bias. We performed experiments on bidimensional soap froths in the Hele-Shaw geometry. A drainage apparatus is introduced to maintain the Plateau Borders' thicknesses constant throughout the foam evolution. When the initial structure is well ordered, the transient regime lasts very long. This limits the study to this particular regime. On the other hand, we study the stationnary regime by starting with initially disordered structures, focusing on the topological disorder. The latter seems to depend on the foaming liquid composition, on the size of the box containing the foam, but , apparently not on drainage. Computer simulations are performed using a program developped by H. Telley from EPFL. This program relies on the use of bidimensional and periodic Laguerre complexes. The simulations provided results that are comparable to experiments with foams and with polycristals, thanks to a single parameter. The program validation is done for both stationnary and transient regimes in the case of soap foams.
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Valérie Pignol. Évolution et caractérisation de structures cellulaires bidimensionnelles expérimentales, en particulier les mousses de savon, et simulées. Matière Molle [cond-mat.soft]. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine - INPL, 1996. Français. ⟨tel-00717860⟩

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