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Contrôle de la masse et du phénotype musculaires en hypoxie : leçons tirées de modèles de croissance du muscle squelettique chez le rongeur

Abstract : Skeletal muscle adapts to various influences, by modulating both its mass and contractile and metabolic properties. It was reported that severe hypoxia impairs muscle mass and oxidative capacities and could reduce the fast-to-slow fiber transition during post-natal development. However, mechanisms involved in muscle plasticity during hypoxia exposure are not clearly identified. This work aimed to determine the role played by ambient hypoxia on the control of muscle mass and muscle phenotype during muscle growth (functional overload-induced hypertrophy of plantaris after removal of its synergist muscles and regeneration of soleus after extensive injury induced by notexin injection). Hypoxia exposure transiently minimizes the overload-induced hypertrophy, while it enhances the muscle-mass loss by repressing the formation and growth of nascent fibers during the early steps of regeneration. These results could be partly due to an impairment of the mTOR signaling activation, the main pathway involved in protein synthesis, independently of Akt. Among the endogenous repressors of mTOR studied (REDD1, BNIP-3 and AMPK), we show that the marked activation of AMPK in hypoxia could repress mTOR activity during regeneration, whereas the mechanism involved in mTOR inhibition remains unknown in the overload model. The ubiquitin/proteasome-dependant system, assessed from expression of the two atrogenes MURF1 and MAFbx, could also partly explain the hypoxia-induced alteration of muscle hypertrophy. Nevertheless, our findings show that activity of satellite cells could be repressed during the first days of regeneration, leading to reduce formation and growth of myotubes. Although muscle growth is early impaired, prolonged hypoxia exposure does not limit the overload-induced hypertrophy and the muscle mass recovery of injured muscle. This demonstrates that anabolic signals induced in these models of drastic muscle growth widely prevail on hypoxia-induced catabolic signals. The analysis of metabolic and contractile properties shows that hypoxia alters oxidative capacities in growing muscle, but mechanisms involved in this adaptive response remain to be elucidated. Moreover, hypoxia is not a sufficient metabolic stimulus to impair the fast-to-slow fiber transition in overloaded muscle, and the complete recovery of the contractile phenotype in injured muscle. It only contributes to transiently and modestly slow down the fast-to-slow fiber shift in overloaded muscle, and to modify the contractile profile of muscle during the degeneration phase.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00716380
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 10, 2012 - 2:28:32 PM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 4:45:37 PM
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Thomas Chaillou. Contrôle de la masse et du phénotype musculaires en hypoxie : leçons tirées de modèles de croissance du muscle squelettique chez le rongeur. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENS033⟩. ⟨tel-00716380⟩

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