La pratique théâtrale dans l’Allemagne de la seconde moitié du dix-huitième siècle (1760 – 1805)

Abstract : In the 18th century, Germany was composed of more than 300 small states which differed politically, religiously and linguistically. In addition to these, there were non-German territories which were, however, greatly influenced by German culture. As a result, the notion of “Germany” included a territory from Alsace to Russia and from theScandinavian countries to Switzerland. Their rulers were generally preoccupied with battles over dominance. If they devoted any time to theatre it was most likely Italian opera or French theatre. In the beginning of the century, German professional theatre was mainly influenced by English theatre and Italian theatre. The social position of actors was very poor. The bourgeoisie looked on them with particular suspicion.Starting in the 1730s, under French theatre influence, the German theatre started becoming more independent. In the second half of the century, theatre was the driving force behind the embourgeoisement of society. Driven by the desire to improve their low social status, actresses played a leading role in this revolution. For a long time, only gender studies were interested in this part of theatre history. A prominent gender studies theory suggested that men and women were of two different sociological groups. This theory has been accepted without justifying its concurrence with theatre history. That’s the starting point of this work which compares the lives of more than 400 Germana ctresses and actors of the time. Many facets of private and professional life are analysed: family life, career opportunities, finances, legal status and social life. The dissertation shows that the theatrical milieu was already divided into two groups far into the second half of the century: actors who had grown up in theatre and those who came to it later. In fact, the categorical sociological distinction between men and women in German theatre is only justifiable beginning at the end of the 18th century.
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Valeska Valipour. La pratique théâtrale dans l’Allemagne de la seconde moitié du dix-huitième siècle (1760 – 1805). Musique, musicologie et arts de la scène. Université de la Sorbonne nouvelle - Paris III, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PA030019⟩. ⟨tel-00713648⟩

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