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Structure génétique des populations de trois espèces de poissons de récifs cubains : stegastes partitus, haemulon flavolineatum et acanthurus tractus

Abstract : Dispersal of marine fishes mainly depends on passive transport of planktonic larvae driven by ocean currents. It allows populations to be connected through thousands of kilometers but also make them sensitive to factors limiting larval dispersion. In this regard it is known that there are several physical and biological factors that determine the distribution of marine species larvae and therefore population connectivity.The present work aims to study the effects of geographic traits of Cuban archipelago and biological characteristics of reef fishes inhabiting it on the genetic structure of their populations. Three different species with distinct biological characteristics and broadly distributed within the Caribbean were selected: Stegastes partitus, Haemulon flavolineatum and Acanthurus tractus. Individuals were sampled from five localities distributed around Cuba during the time period from 2005 to 2010. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism: a fragment of the non coding region (NCR) for the three species and cytb for A. tractus. The polymorphism of nuclear microsatellite loci was studied for S. partitus and H. flavolineatum.Genetic diversity, assessed by means of Ho and He have high values when analysing microsatellite loci. These molecular markers revealed the presence of contrasting geographic structure patterns for the two species. Low but significant pairwise FST estimates were obtained for S. partitus while H. flavolineatum was genetically homogenous. These results were supported by mtDNA analyses. Likewise, A. tractus showed no evidence of significant genetic differentiation at the level of the NCR and cytb gene. Differences in population genetic structure of surveyed species could be the result of extant marine currents acting distinctly on species dispersion according to their reproductive behaviour (i.e. spawning sites, benthonic or pelagic eggs and capacity of larvae to staying close to the natal reef or being driven away from it). Mitochondrial markers showed high levels of haplotypic diversity for the three species and contrasted nucleotide diversity, low for S. partitus, intermediate for H. flavolineatum and high for A. tractus. According to these observations and results of neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analyses, it is suggested that recent population expansion occurred in these species. However differences in population parameter estimations suggest that the time and the rate of population expansion were different for the different species.The analysis of A. tractus cytb haplotype relationships grouped some Cuban individuals with two haplotypes previously described as A. bahianus. This latter species has been recently proposed as restrict to South Atlantic and separated from A. tractus by the Amazon-Orinoco outflow barrier. The presence of mtDNA haplotypes from the southern region in Cuba suggests that A. bahianus may be able to overcome this barrier.
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Jessy Castellanos Gell. Structure génétique des populations de trois espèces de poissons de récifs cubains : stegastes partitus, haemulon flavolineatum et acanthurus tractus. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI; Université de la Havane (Cuba), 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112095⟩. ⟨tel-00713528⟩

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