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Efficience d'utilisation de l'eau chez le peuplier noir (Populus nigra L.) : variabilité et plasticité en réponse aux variations de l'environnement.

Abstract : This work aimed (i) to quantify variability of water-use efficiency (WUE) on black poplar (Populus nigra L.), (ii) to quantify the phenotypic plasticity in response to water deficit and increase of temperature and (iii) to precise the relationships between WUE, growth and leaf survival. Studies on seedlings in growth chambers and in natural conditions, and on populations established in common garden studies were realized. Significant variations and significant plasticity of water-use efficiency were observed on seedlings and adults whatever growth conditions and genetic background. A significant decrease of WUE was observed in response to increase of temperature while an increase of WUE was observed in response to moderate water deficit. Under elevated temperature a significant relationship was observed between WUE and leaf survival suggesting that low WUE confers an advantage for individuals under these conditions. Moreover in situ, a negative relationship between WUE and seedlings density was detected suggesting that low WUE are observed under high seedlings densities. The complex trait ‘water-use efficiency’ should be a limiting character of species establishment under increase of temperatures; this temperature elevation should have consequences on genetic structuration of populations in the future. Our results suggest a geographical structuration of WUE variability but results must be confirmed on several others populations. This present work opens prospects for identification of physiological bases of WUE variations, its plasticity and its geographical structuration.
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Sylvain Chamaillard. Efficience d'utilisation de l'eau chez le peuplier noir (Populus nigra L.) : variabilité et plasticité en réponse aux variations de l'environnement.. Biologie végétale. Université d'Orléans, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ORLE2015⟩. ⟨tel-00713525⟩

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