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Propriétés optiques et spectroscopie non-linéaire de nanoparticules individuelles

Abstract : This work focuses on the experimental study of linear and nonlinear optical responses of single metal nanoparticles. For this, an original far field optical technique, based on the spatial modulation of the sample, was set-up and combined with a femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe technique. We have first investigated the optical properties of model nanoparticles, formed by a silver nanosphere coated with a silica shell. We have highlighted the main consequence of electronic quantum confinement on the optical response of a nanoparticle: the broadening of its localized surface plasmon resonance with size reduction (proportional to the inverse of the radius, for nanospheres). This detailed study had never been realized, because it requires measurements on single nanoparticles (to eliminate the influence of inhomogeneous effects on the resonance due to size, geometry and environment dispersions) and of known size. This was possible thanks to the quantitative measurement of extinction cross-section and / or correlation of the optical image of the nano-object with its electron microscopy image. The second part of this work has been devoted to the study of the linear and time-resolved non-linear optical responses of gold nanorods. These systems are particularly interesting because their optical properties can be controlled by changing their geometry (in particular their aspect ratio). First, the extinction spectrum and its polarization dependence have been studied on individual objects. Comparison of the linear optical response with theoretical models provides information on orientation and geometry of the nanorod. The ultrafast nonlinear optical response of the nanorod was then measured with a high sensitivity femtosecond pump-probe technique. The investigated nanoparticles being fully characterized optically, a quantitative measurement of their non-linearity could be achieved, and its physical origin determined using a theoretical model.
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Hatim Baida. Propriétés optiques et spectroscopie non-linéaire de nanoparticules individuelles. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010LYO10108⟩. ⟨tel-00713129⟩

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