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Contribution de la Paléogénétique et de la Paléogénomique à l'Etude des sites Archéologiques

Abstract : Palaeogenetics aims at analysing DNA from archaeological remains. New genetic sequencing technologies revitalize the discipline through genomic analysis. Because of cool and constant temperature, cave sites allow the preservation of ancient DNA. We carried out DNA analysis of Pleistocene specimens originating from cave sites, especially the Chauvet cave. We studied samples from two extinct species, the cave bear, Ursus spelaeus, and the cave hyena, Crocuta crocuta spelaea. Using a well-preserved sample from Chauvet cave, we characterized the 16,810 bp-long mitochondrial genome of the extinct cave bear, and established its phylogeny. We were able to ascertain that the cave bear is a sister-species to the brown and polar bears, and that the two lineages split about 1.6 million years ago. We also sequenced mitochondrial control region fragments of Chauvet and Deux-Ouvertures cave bear samples. These Ardèche bear specimens, dated back to 28,000-32,000 years BP, display strong genetic homogeneity that may be related to the imminent species extinction. Finally, we analysed cave hyena coprolites from the Coumère Cave by metagenomic DNA sequencing. As these fossilized feces still contain a high amount of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we were able to decipher the first complete mitochondrial genome for the cave hyena. We found DNA from the red deer, Cervus elaphus, thus depicting a Pleistocene predator-prey relationship.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00711689
Contributor : Celine Lentz <>
Submitted on : Monday, June 25, 2012 - 2:56:10 PM
Last modification on : Friday, September 11, 2020 - 3:01:23 AM
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Céline Bon. Contribution de la Paléogénétique et de la Paléogénomique à l'Etude des sites Archéologiques. Génétique animale. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-00711689⟩

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