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Méthodes simplifiées basées sur une approche quasi-statique pour l’évaluation de la vulnérabilité des ouvrages soumis à des excitations sismiques

Abstract : In the context of building’s protection against seismic risk, simplified analysis techniques, based on quasi-static analysis of pushover, have strongly developed over the past two decades. The thesis aims to optimize a simplified method proposed by Chopra and Goel in 2001 and adopted by American standards FEMA 273. This method is a nonlinear decoupled modal analysis, called by the authors UMRHA (Uncoupled Modal for Response History Analysis) which is mainly characterized by: pushover modal analysis according to the dominant modes of vibration of the structure, setting up nonlinear single degree of freedom systems drawn from modal pushover curves, then determining the history response of the structure by combining of the temporal responses associated with each mode of vibration. The decoupling of nonlinear history responses associated with each mode is the strong assumption of the method UMRHA. In this study, the UMRHA method has been improved by investigating the following points. First of all, several nonlinear single degree of freedom systems drawn from modal pushover curves are proposed to enrich the original UMRHA method, in which a simple elastic-plastic model is used, other elastic-plastic models with different envelope curves, Takeda model taking into account an hysteretic behavior characteristic of structures under earthquakes, and finally, a simplified model based on the frequency degradation as a function of a damage index. The latter nonlinear single degree of freedom model privileges the view of the frequency degradation during the structure damage process relative to a realistic description of hysteresis loops. The total response of the structure is obtained by summing the contributions of the non linear dominant modes to those of linear non dominant modes. Finally, the degradation of the modal shapes due to the structure damage during the seismic loading is taken into account in the new simplified method M-UMRHA (Modified UMRHA) proposed in this study. By generalizing the previous model of frequency degradation as a function of a damage index: the modal shape becomes itself also dependent on a damage index, the maximum displacement at the top of the structure; the evolution of the modal shape as a function of this index is directly obtained from the modal pushover analysis. The pertinence of the new method M-UMRHA is investigated for several types of structures, by adopting tested models of structures simulation under earthquakes: reinforced concrete frame modeled by multifibre elements with uniaxial laws under cyclic loading for concrete and steel, infill masonry wall with diagonal bars elements resistant only in compression, existing building (Grenoble City Hall) with multilayer shell elements and nonlinear biaxial laws based on the concept of smeared and fixed cracks. The obtained results by the proposed simplified method are compared to the reference results derived from the nonlinear response history analysis.
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Laila Tataie. Méthodes simplifiées basées sur une approche quasi-statique pour l’évaluation de la vulnérabilité des ouvrages soumis à des excitations sismiques. Autre. INSA de Lyon, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ISAL0123⟩. ⟨tel-00708575⟩

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