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Analyse d'un processus pédogénétique par une approche expérimentale : le lessivage des argiles dans le sol

Abstract : Lessivage - understood as a substantial vertical transfer of fine particles from an eluvial horizon to an illuvial horizon - is one of the major pedogenetic processes. It has been described in many soil types but remains poorly known and characterized. Its existence is still subject to debate in the scientific community. To improve our knowledge, this project aimed at conducting laboratory experiments allowing both a quantification and a kinetic approach of lessivage. We thus designed three experiments, two to study eluviation on disturbed and undisturbed soils, and the third one to study illuviation. Theses experiments associated to a mass balance approach performed on existing pedological data allowed: (i) determing the nature of migrant particles, (ii) quantifying the mobilized particles and identifying some of the processes responsible for their mobilization, (iii) quantifying the quantities of particles retained in the illuvial horizon and identifying some of the processes responsible for this fixation, (iv) determining the impact of soil structure and extreme climatic events on lessivage. At last, we extrapolated these experimental results on the pedogenese duration and confronted them to soils profiles described in the literature. Our results show that: (1) the migrating particles have the signature of the 0-2 μm fraction, slightly enriched in smectites for the first rain events, (2) the particle transfer depends of the hydrodynamic functioning, either matricial or preferential, (3) only a fraction of particles mobilised in the eluvial horizon is fixed in the illuvial horizon, (4) the lessivage is the process mainly responsible for the formation of textural contrast in 1 to 12 % of the studied profiles.
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Submitted on : Saturday, June 2, 2012 - 1:09:56 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00703478, version 1



Laurence Quénard. Analyse d'un processus pédogénétique par une approche expérimentale : le lessivage des argiles dans le sol. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Orléans, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ORLE2056⟩. ⟨tel-00703478⟩



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