Reconstitution de l'évolution morpho-structurale et de la dynamique éruptive du massif du Cantal : relation avec la distribution spatio-temporelle du volcanisme du Massif Central (France)

Abstract : The Cantal massif, located in the French Cenozoic volcanic province, is the largest Miocene volcano in Europe. It is mainly composed of volcaniclastic breccias giving impressive dimensions and a shield-like morphology. Field observations, coupled with K-Ar datings, allowed us to reconstruct the morpho-structural evolution, the eruptive dynamics and the volcanic history of the massif. We first constrained a stratigraphic sequence which is identical all around the massif. Then, we show that it exists from chrono-stratigraphic, structural and geomorphologic evidences a 8 x 10 km central caldera ca. 8 Myrs ago occupied by a lake. The sedimentological and morphological study of the main breccia unit, the Large Breccia Flow, led us to define it as one of the largest syn-eruptive debris flow in the world. We estimate its volume at ca. 100 km3. We propose that this debris flow resulted from a major intracaldera lake eruption. The interaction between a juvenile magma and the water of the caldera lake, with a surteyan dynamics, initiated the debris flow that propagated on the external slopes of the volcano at 360° until 25 km from its source. This study opens outlets on one hand to volcanic hazards related to major intracaldera lake eruptions ; on the other hand, we show that it is possible to reconstruct the former source morphology of a several Myrs-old volcaniclastic breccia flow by studying the sedimentological and morphological criterion of its deposit.Furthermore, the combination of new K-Ar datings with field observations allowed us to reconstruct the volcanic history of the Cézallier plateau (site of the youngest volcanic activity in the continental France), of the Aubrac plateau, and also the volcanism along the Sillon Houiller. Consequently, we established the spatio-temporal relationships between the Cantal massif and the adjacent volcanic provinces, highlighting the important role of the Hercynian inherited fractures in the magmas ascent. We thus confirm the spatio-temporal migration toward the north in Auvergne. Finally, the acquisition of 47 new K-Ar ages ranging from 12.8 Ma to 9 ka conveys new time constraints on the chronology of Massif Central volcanism by precising its spatio-temporal distribution.
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Earth Sciences. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. French. <NNT : 2011PA112330>


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Sébastien Leibrandt. Reconstitution de l'évolution morpho-structurale et de la dynamique éruptive du massif du Cantal : relation avec la distribution spatio-temporelle du volcanisme du Massif Central (France). Earth Sciences. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. French. <NNT : 2011PA112330>. <tel-00703477>

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