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Theses

Modélisation mécano-biologique par éléments finis de l'os trabéculaire : des activités cellulaires au remodelage osseux

Abstract : By continuously undergoing mechanical and physiological stresses, bone quality and bone strength evolve throughremodeling process. However, osteoporosis and Paget’s disease for instance alter bone quality and increase the risk of bone fracture. Bone quality is mainly defined by its Bone Mineral Density (BMD) but mechanical properties and microarchitecture have also to be taken into account for a proper definition. About 3 million of women and 1 million of men suffer from osteoporosis which costs approximately 1 billion Euros per year in France. This highlights the necessity to develop diagnostic tools in order to enable proper bone quality characterization (mechanical properties, cellular activity and architecture).This thesis proposes an original model combining the main bone remodeling constituents which are : (i) the mechanical behavior, (ii) the cellular activity, (iii) the transduction phase ; enabling mechanical and biochemical information processing. Mechanical and cellular behavior models are taken from already published work and the transduction phase model unifying mechanical and biological information is inspired from the literature. Consequently, the implementation of these three main bone remodeling constituents into a finite element analysis gives a plausible mechano-biological model of trabecular bone remodeling. The developed model can be used at different scales in order to study the local amount of bone remodeled, magnified by physical activity and the concentration of some biochemical agents. Its application on virtual volume of femora under different clinical scenarios gives good results in respect to medical images observations.
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Romain Rieger. Modélisation mécano-biologique par éléments finis de l'os trabéculaire : des activités cellulaires au remodelage osseux. Autre. Université d'Orléans, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ORLE2052⟩. ⟨tel-00703240⟩

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