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Contribution à l’étude des bétons portés en température / Evolution des propriétés de transfert : Etude de l’éclatement

Abstract : The study of the behaviour of concrete at high temperatures is of great importance to determine the stability and strength of concrete structures in fire conditions. Spectacular fires, these last years, showed that the concrete could be very strongly solicited. Thus it appears that to ensure a very good behaviour of the concrete at temperature it is saved people and reduced the expenses of immobilisation and repair of the damaged structures. The aims of the present work, by the experimental study, are to provide a better comprehension of the involved phenomena during the exposure to the high temperatures of the high performance concretes (HPC). It focuses, in particular, on the fluids transfers (permeability) and the study of the thermal instability (spalling) of high performance concrete. The thesis work was conducted on high-performance concrete (80 MPa) with 5% silica fume (low permeability material to improve durability), and different amount of polypropylene fibres. The use of polypropylene fibres (PP) is regarded as an effective technical solution to improve the behaviour of the HPC at fire conditions, in particular thanks to the physical phenomena appearing at the temperatures lower than 200°C. Our work is concerned, initially, on the characterization of the evolution of physical properties (porosity, mass loss), thermal properties (conductivity and diffusivity) and mechanical properties (compressive strength and tensile) and the sorption isotherms. The second part concerns the study of the evolution of the permeability, as a main property characterising the hydrous transfers inside the concrete exposed to temperature. An experimental study is conducted concerning the evolution of the permeability of concrete as a function of temperature (up to 200 ° C). The studied parameters are: the type of concrete (with and without fibres), two types and geometry of fibres, the nature of the fluid (air and vapour) and the measurement methods (residual and under temperature). The experimental results shows that the existing fibres generate a most important permeability beyond 150°C and that the obtained results, by residual or under temperature measurements, may be related to the operating procedures. Finally, in the last part an investigation on the spalling phenomenon related to the material compositions is conducted. A new experimental method of investigation of the sensitivity of the formulations to thermal instability is proposed: the study of spherical specimens exposed in high temperatures. This method will be compared to the traditional methods of investigation. The analysis of the test results makes to discuss the thermal instability causes and to characterize the concrete properties at high temperatures, important data to modelling.
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Rachid Haniche. Contribution à l’étude des bétons portés en température / Evolution des propriétés de transfert : Etude de l’éclatement. Autre. INSA de Lyon, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ISAL0155⟩. ⟨tel-00701556⟩

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