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Comportement thermomécanique et endommagement de nouveaux réfractaires verriers à très haute teneur en zircone : investigation des mécanismes de fissuration par EBSD et émission acoustique

Abstract : This thesis falls under an approach of investigation on the damage mechanisms of high zirconia fused-cast refractories. The focus is particularly set on the comprehension of the phenomenon of microcracking responsible for the degradation of these materials. Taking place at cooling time, it leads to the fracture of the fused-cast blocks. Realized within the framework of the French research programme NOREV (NOouveau REfractaires Verriers) supported by the ANR, the work presented in this manuscript is the fruit of a collaboration with Saint Gobain CREE, the Centre des Materiaux P.M. FOURT of the Ecole des Mines de Paris, the laboratory GEMH of the ENSCI of Limoges, ICAR and Euro Physical Acoustics. It follows the works completed at the time of the previous programme (PROMETHEREF, 2002-2005). Preliminary experiments have enabled to define and specify the directions of this study. Taking into account the thermal expansion anisotropy of both monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia as described in the literature, the imagery of the backscatter electrons has in particular revealed a link between the presence of crystallographic domains and the observed cracking. Other experiments conducted in the field of acoustic emission have clarified its applicability and its contributions to our problems as well as the need for developing an adapted algorithm to process data. Thus, three research orientations have been developed. They aim, by their complementarity, to allow an analysis of the different scales of the damage on the study materials and is based on their comparison. They respectively allow to assess the damage in an indirect way, to examine its origins at a microscopic level and to determine its occurrence in temperature at the global scale of the sample. The first axis consists in the evaluation of the mechanical properties in temperatures emphasizing the incidences of cracking. The description of subcritical cracking, the evolution of the elastic properties as well as the determination of the fracture properties bring elements which enable to enrich the fractographic study. The second axis aims, after an interrogation as for the simultaneous presence of monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia, to determine the cell parameters and the thermal expansion coefficients of both structures for the different materials. The modeling of the corresponding cells then appears of great interest for the analysis of EBSD maps. Lastly, the validation and the application of an innovative process for the treatment of the acoustic emission data integrating a genetic algorithm enable to quantify the damage and to bring precise details as for its action in temperature. These observations are consolidated by acousto-ultrasounds follow-ups.
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Arnaud Sibil. Comportement thermomécanique et endommagement de nouveaux réfractaires verriers à très haute teneur en zircone : investigation des mécanismes de fissuration par EBSD et émission acoustique. Autre. INSA de Lyon, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ISAL0081⟩. ⟨tel-00701526⟩

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