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Régulation immunitaire de la toxoplasmose oculaire : vers de nouvelles perspectives thérapeutiques

Abstract : Purpose. Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis in immunocompetent subjects. Taking into account the opposing needs of limiting parasite multiplication and minimizing tissue destruction, the immune imbalance implies especially Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells.Methods. In a prospective clinical study of acute intraocular inflammation including ocular toxoplasmosis, viral uveitis, systemic inflammatory disease related uveitis and bacterial endophthalmitis we evaluated the cytokine pattern in aqueous humors of affected patients. To further study the immunological mechanisms involved during ocular toxoplasmosis, weevaluated the intraocular inflammation, the parasite load and the immunological response characterized on mRNA and protein level in a mouse model. To evaluate the role of IL-17A, anti IL-17A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were administered concomitantly with the parasite.Results. Cytokines networks are different, depending on the cause of intraocular inflammation. In OT, we observed severe ocular inflammation and cytokine patterns comparable to human cases, including IL-17A production. Neutralizing IL-17A decreased intraocular inflammation and parasite load in mice. Detailed studies revealed upregulation of Treg and Th1 pathways. When IFN-γ was neutralized concomitantly, the initial parasite multiplication rate was partially restored.Conclusions. Local IL-17A production plays a central role in pathology of OT. The balance of Th17 and Th1 responses (especially IFN-γ) is crucial for the outcome of infection. These data open new in vivo therapeutic approaches by repressing inflammatory pathways using intravitreal injection of IL-17A mAbs.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 23, 2012 - 11:50:34 AM
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Arnaud Sauer. Régulation immunitaire de la toxoplasmose oculaire : vers de nouvelles perspectives thérapeutiques. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université de Strasbourg, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012STRAJ005⟩. ⟨tel-00700490⟩

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