Développement d'une sylviculture à vocation énergétique et conservation de la biodiversité saproxylique

Abstract : Facing current energetic and ecological issues, public authorities forecast a strong increase in wood harvesting by 2020. Nevertheless, in the temperate biome, very few studies clearly link sylviculture changes associated with such an increase and conservation of biodiversity. The main issue of this Phd thesis was to improve the knowledge on which managers could build relevant conservation tools to preserve biodiversity. For this purpose, we used saproxylic beetles as biological model. Deadwood volume has often been used as an indicator for sustainable forest management. Using meta-analysis, we tested the relevance of deadwood volume as biodiversity indicator. We showed that an increase in deadwood volume favours biodiversity, but this relationship remains weak for temperate forests. We then tested the effect of different logging residues qualities (tree species, diameter and decay class) on biodiversity in order to identify the main drivers of assemblages’ composition. Our results showed that piece of wood characteristics play an important role on biodiversity. Finally, we studied the ecological value of areas where management had been abandoned (coppices-with-standard where coppice had not been harvested for more than 60 years) and the influence of shortened or increased rotation lengths in oak high forest (160-300 years). We thus showed that overmature areas have higher levels of biodiversity and that shortened rotations lengths may have a negative impact on biodiversity. As a consequence, maintaining such overmature zones may help preserve saproxylic biodiversity. This study is the first to be conducted in the temperate biome. Despite the results obtained, many questions lay ahead and many factors remain to be studied.
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Aurore Lassauce. Développement d'une sylviculture à vocation énergétique et conservation de la biodiversité saproxylique. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Orléans, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ORLE2062⟩. ⟨tel-00698580⟩



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