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Theses

Les mouvements de membre fantôme : relations entre perceptions motrices et neuro-anatomie fonctionnelle étudiée en IRM fonctionnelle

Abstract : The phantom limb is a sensory experience that is perceived to originate from the missing part. Amputees report that the phantom limb had certain sensory properties like touch and pain, as well as kinesthetic properties like being able to be moved voluntarily. Phantom limb movements are little-known and generally considered to reflect motor imagery rather than motor execution. The first aim of this thesis is to investigate whether amputees distinguish between executing a movement of the phantom limb and imagining moving the missing limb. The second aim is to examine the link between the quality of the motor control in the phantom limb and cortical reorganizations in the motor cortex of amputees. Behavioral tests and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) results reveal the ability of amputees to make the distinction between execution and motor imagery in the phantom limb. This distinction is based both on differences in performances associated with the two tasks and the recruitment of partially distinct brain regions. Beyond this physiological distinction, this result suggests that phantom limb movements are similar to executed movements and differ from imagined movements. This raises important questions about the very nature of the processes underlying the awareness of a movement as being executed or imagined. The functional alterations in the motor cortex of amputees are somewhat similar to the pathophysiological mechanisms of maladaptative plasticity. Amputation could be a great model for its study. Indeed, the clinical and neuroimaging examinations conducted during this thesis led to a relatively coherent model of the functional reorganizations in the motor cortex after a limb-amputation and their relationships with behavioral variables. In particular, the relationship between functional reorganizations in the motor cortex and the quality of residual motor control in the phantom limb helps to understand the mechanisms underlying some analgesic therapies, such as the “visuomotor therapy”
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00697776
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 16, 2012 - 11:14:12 AM
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Estelle Raffin. Les mouvements de membre fantôme : relations entre perceptions motrices et neuro-anatomie fonctionnelle étudiée en IRM fonctionnelle. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011STET007T⟩. ⟨tel-00697776⟩

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