Abstract : Launched in November 2009, the main goal of the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission is to map global fields of surface soil moisture with an accuracy better than 0.04 m3/m3 land with a spatial resolution ranging from 35 km at nadir up to 55 km (43 km average) using L-band (1.4 GHz) radiometry. The large pixel size of satellite missions such as SMOS, introduces a number of scientific questions that requires a minimum of field measurements representative of the area seen by the sensor. Thus, the validation of SMOS data requires the maintenance of long term measurements over large areas. This is the role of Valencia Anchor Station (VAS), established by the University of Valencia in December 2001, whose principal objective is to characterize an area dedicated to the calibration and validation of Earth Observation missions. In the context of the validation of the SMOS products over land, the main objective of this thesis consists in accurately generating the Match-ups over the VAS area (equivalent to a SMOS pixel) to be compared with the SMOS real data. The Match-ups are defined as simulated passive microwave brightness temperatures using the surface variables as well as the characteristics of the VAS area. A coupled SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer) - radiative transfer model was developed for modelling the soil moisture and the resulting microwave emissions. The hydrological processes are simulated with a SVAT model named ISBA (Interactions between Soil Biosphere Atmosphere), while the microwave emission is simulated using the L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere) model upon which the SMOS Level 2 processor is based.