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O papel da argila na estabilização termica de nanocompositos : um estudo da ordem locale a média distância

Abstract : One way to increase thermal stability of polymers consists by mixing them with a few amount of clays (< 1 % w/w), spread at a nanometric scale. Such materials are called ‘nanocomposites’. Many explanations of the phenomenon have been given, as diffusion barrier effects, the formation of char. Others being checked, as the effects of radical trapping by the ions involved in Fenton-type reactions. In this work, the main objective was to follow in situ the chemical transformations of the clay phase, in order to better understand how these lamellar nanostructures retard the polymer decomposition. Three types of nanocomposites were prepared : i) Poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-Poly(trimetoxysilil propylmethacrylate) and montmorillonite clay (MMT) type Cloisite (PMMA-co-PTMSM-Cloisite); ii) natural PMMA-montmorillonites clay with different proportion of ions Fe3+ in octahedral layers (PMMA-MMT); iii) PMMA- double-layered hydroxides (HDL), with different rate of ions Zn2+, Cu2+ and Fe3+ PMMA-HDL. The thermal decomposition of primitive clay and of its respective nanocomposites were followed by thermal analysis, X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). The effects of atmosphere, the chemical decomposition of layers and the clay amount employed to obtain the nanocomposites were evaluated. The study of nanocomposites, PMMA-co-PTMSM-Cloisite showed that the addition of clay, under air, results in a greater stabilization than under N2 atmosphere, which is also higher according to the amount of clay spread in the polymer. The formation of char has been observed only under air atmosphere. It highlighted two stabilization mechanism: char formation and diffusion barrier. The thermal stability of nanocomposites PMMA-MMT is also proportional to the amount of clay used in obtaining the nanocomposite. For small amount of clay, 0,3 – 1wt%, the thermal stability of nanocomposites is proportional to the quantity of ions Fe3+ in the clay. The monitoring of the chemical environment of the ions Fe3+ by EXAFS in function of the temperature showed that, when the inorganic phase is spread in the PMMA, the ions Fe3+ are reduced to Fe2+. This was not verified in the pristine phases. The stabilization mechanisms revealed in this study, indicate that the clay phase stabilizes the PMMA by diffusion barrier mechanisms and radical trapping. The nanocomposites PMMA-HDL with ions Fe3+ are more stable than those containing ions Cu2+. The in situ study of the evolution of the local order at middle-range distance in function of temperature showed that the HDL phases stabilize also the PMMA by diffusion barrier mechanisms and the radical trapping. The ion Cu2+ , leading to distortions at the local order, makes layers less stable; they decompose at lower temperature and the diffusion barrier effect is then reduced. On the other hand, the ions Cu2+ and Fe3+ trap radicals in the polymer phase which breaks down and slow the phenomenon. This PhD work demonstrates that clay can act as reactive or inert particles, i.e. through chemical reaction with the polymer or as physical barrier. The thermal stabilization of polymers relies on a mechanism combination; whom the diffusion barrier, the char formation and the radical trapping.
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 3, 2012 - 2:57:30 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, April 16, 2019 - 4:36:53 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00694069, version 1



Hudson Walace Pereira de Carvalho. O papel da argila na estabilização termica de nanocompositos : um estudo da ordem locale a média distância. Other. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI; Universidade estadual paulista (São Paulo, Brésil), 2012. Portuguese. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112049⟩. ⟨tel-00694069⟩



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